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Old 02.12.2004, 23:03   #16
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Contract Purchase of Mortgage, First year of Neriglissar, 559 B.C.

This document is dated the ninth day of the intercalary month of Neriglissar's accession year. The place is Babylon. The scribe who wrote it, Iqisha-apli's son. A mortgage on the house of Nabu-apla-iddin, which a tablet dated in the reign of Evil-Merodach shows was then held by two persons, had been transferred to the hands of Iqisha-apla. It appears from the present transaction that half of the mortgage had been paid off. Apparently the remaining half could not be paid, and the house was sold. The purchaser was in this case the king, Neriglissar, who had but recently ascended the throne. Like many other regal purchasers he was short of funds, and was compelled to borrow the money from the head of the Egibi firm. The king appears to have taken the house for the sum of twenty-six and a quarter shekels, the half of the loan which remained unpaid, and to have compelled the holder of the mortgage to surrender to the banker all further claim to the property. Might made right in this case, and the equity was lost.

Fifty-two and a half shekels of money, belonging to Iqisha-apla, son of Gilua, son of Sin-shadunu (are received) from Nabu-apla-iddin, son of Balatu, son of the ______, upon the price of the house of Nabu-apla-iddin, which he purchased for cash for the palace. The balance remaining, twenty-six and a quarter shekels of money, Iqisha-apla, son of Gilua, son of Sin-shadunu, has received from the hand of Nabu-akhi-iddin, son of Shula, son of Egibi, and has given the receipt for fifty-two and a half shekels from Nabu-apla-iddin unto Nabu-akhi-iddin.
Это английский перевод древного контракта. Короче смысл в том что ростовщик дал ссуду некому Nabu-apla-iddin и тот смог вернуть лишь половину. поскольку он поставил свой дом под залог то дом этот перешел в руки ростовщика который его решил продать. Покупатель же дома сам король Neriglissar. Но у короля тоже нету денег и он решил взять кредит у фирми Egibi.

Интересно не правда ли ?

http://earth-history.com/Sumer/sumer...-contracts.htm

Кстати фирма Еджиби была очень известная фирма . Она имела больше денег нежели целые страны. И кредиты у него не были дешевыми выше 10 % годовых.
Историки еще не решили полностью что это за фирма была такая , Евреи считают что она еврейская но имена у ростовщиков Халдейские . Так что ......
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Old 11.12.2004, 15:58   #17
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Urartian language
Encyclopædia Britannica Article


also called Chaldean, or Vannic,

ancient language spoken in northeastern Anatolia and used as the official language of Urartu in the 9th–6th century BC. Non-Indo-European in origin, it is thought to be descended from the same parent language as the older, Hurrian language. Surviving texts of the language are written in a variant of the cuneiform script called Neo-Assyrian. Two bilingual inscriptions in Assyrian and Urartian led to the deciphering of Urartian. In 1933 the German Orientalist Johannes Friedrich published the first reliable description of the language in his Urartian grammar.
Интересно неправда ли Энциклопедия Британика пишет что урартский язык также называется Халдейский
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Old 11.12.2004, 16:06   #18
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Hurrian language
Encyclopædia Britannica Article


extinct language spoken from the last centuries of the 3rd millennium BC until at least the latter years of the Hittite Empire (c. 1400–c. 1190 BC); it is neither an Indo-European nor a Semitic language. Many sources for the language exist, including the numerous passages marked hurlili (“Hurrian”) in cuneiform tablets discovered in the ruins of the Hittite archives at Bogazköy (the ancient Hattusa, in modern Turkey). It is generally believed that the speakers of this language originally came from the Armenian mountains and spread over southeast Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Before the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, parts of Hurrian territory were under the control of an Indo-Aryan ruling class, the Mitanni, whose name was incorrectly applied to the Hurrians by early researchers. The later Urartian language is thought to be descended from the same parent language as Hurrian. See also Urartian language.
Ну скажите люди как не уважать этих англичан, у них все четко написано, Хурриты считаются виходцами Армянского нагорья. нигде вы не найдете такое четкое мнение, Везде для плебея дают всякую муру и только в Британике все четко.

Кстати у меня спецдопуск к Британике так что скажите что вас там интересует и я сля вас достану оттуда
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Old 11.12.2004, 16:11   #19
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Anatolian languages
Encyclopædia Britannica Article

History and development > Languages using cuneiform writing and Anatolian hieroglyphs > Urartian

The terms Chaldean and Vannic have also been used as designations for Urartian during earlier stages of research. Urartian is not a late dialect of Hurrian but a separate language, although both stem from a common parent. During the 9th through 6th centuries BC, Urartian was used in northeastern Anatolia as the official language of the state of Urartu, which centred around the district of Lake Van but also extended over the Transcaucasian regions of modern Russia and into northwestern Iran and at times even into parts of North Syria. The Urartian texts are written in a variant of the Neo-Assyrian script and consist mostly of monumental inscriptions (annals, votive inscriptions related to building and irrigation activities), some small inscriptions on helmets and shields dedicated in the temple, and a few economic cuneiform tablets. Two bilingual inscriptions in Urartian and Assyrian that apparently correspond very closely provided the key to the understanding of the language; the stylistic resemblances to Assyrian texts of the same period guided the further interpretation.

Archibald H. Sayce was the first scholar to devote his attention to Urartian in the 1880s and 1890s and continued his activities until 1932. More important were the philological contributions of the German historian Carl F. Lehmann-Haupt between 1892 and 1935. The first reliable description of Urartian grammar was published by the German Orientalist Johannes Friedrich (1933).

Next to the Urartian texts in cuneiform writing, there also existed an indigenous hieroglyphic script that is still undeciphered and is too meagrely represented to warrant a serious attempt.
Как видите кроме Ванских клинописей также есть и иероглифы которые еще не распознаны !!!

Армяне тот кто разгадает Ванские Иероглифы сделает величайшое дело для Армянского народа..
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Old 11.12.2004, 16:28   #20
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Sumer
Encyclopædia Britannica Article


site of the earliest known civilization, located in the southernmost part of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, in the area that later became Babylonia and is now southern Iraq from around Baghdad to the Persian Gulf.

Sumer was first settled between 4500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people who did not speak the Sumerian language. These people now are called proto-Euphrateans or Ubaidians, for the village Al-Ubaid, where their remains were first discovered. The Ubaidians were the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery. After the Ubaidian immigration to Mesopotamia, various Semitic peoples infiltrated their territory, adding their cultures to the Ubaidian culture, and creating a high pre-Sumerian civilization.

The people called Sumerians, whose language became the prevailing language of the territory, probably came from around Anatolia, arriving in Sumer about 3300 BC. By the 3rd millennium BC the country was the site of at least 12 separate city-states: Kish, Erech, Ur, Sippar, Akshak, Larak, Nippur, Adab, Umma, Lagash, Bad-tibira, and Larsa. Each of these states comprised a walled city and its surrounding villages and land, and each worshiped its own deity, whose temple was the central structure of the city. Political power originally belonged to the citizens, but, as rivalry between the various city-states increased, each adopted the institution of kingship. An extant document, The Sumerian King List, records that eight kings reigned before the great Flood.

After the Flood, various city-states and their dynasties of kings temporarily gained power over the others. The first king to unite the separate city-states was Etana, ruler of Kish (c. 2800 BC). Thereafter, Kish, Erech, Ur, and Lagash vied for ascendancy for hundreds of years, rendering Sumer vulnerable to external conquerors, first the Elamites (c. 2530–2450 BC) and later the Akkadians, led by their king Sargon (reigned 2334–2279 BC). Although Sargon's dynasty lasted only about 100 years, it united the city-states and created a model of government that influenced all of Middle Eastern civilization.

After Sargon's dynasty ended and Sumer recovered from a devastating invasion by the semibarbaric Gutians, the city-states once again became independent. The high point of this final era of Sumerian civilization was the reign of the 3rd dynasty of Ur, whose first king, Ur-Nammu, published the earliest law code yet discovered in Mesopotamia.

After 1900 BC, when the Amorites conquered all of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians lost their separate identity, but they bequeathed their culture to their Semitic successors, and they left the world a number of technological and cultural contributions, including the first wheeled vehicles and potter's wheels; the first system of writing, cuneiform; the first codes of law; and the first city-states.
Шумеры пришли из около Анатолийских районов ..

Буахахаха !! Интересно после скольких мучительных раздумии было решено напечатать это .. А куда делась Загросская версия, Афганская или Алтайская ???

Буахаха.. Любой кто мало мальки изучал археологические данные знал и сегодня знает откуда выехали Шумеры, просто смелости нету и честности тоже чтобы это говорить.

Только у Британики есть смелость ведь у него такая Крыша
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Old 11.12.2004, 16:55   #21
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Etruscan
Encyclopædia Britannica Article


member of an ancient people of Etruria, in Italy (between the Tiber and Arno rivers west and south of the Apennines), whose urban civilization reached its height in the 6th century BC. Many features of Etruscan culture were adopted by the Romans, their successors to power in the peninsula.

The origin of the Etruscans has been a subject of debate since antiquity. Herodotus, for example, argued that the Etruscans descended from a people who invaded Etruria from Anatolia before 800 BC and established themselves over the native Iron Age inhabitants of the region, whereas Dionysius of Halicarnassus believed that the Etruscans were of local Italian origin. Both theories, as well as a third 19th-century theory, have turned out to be problematic, and today scholarly discussion has shifted its focus from the discussion of provenance to that of the formation of the Etruscan people.

In any event, by the middle of the 7th century BC the chief Etruscan towns had been founded. Before reaching the Arno River in the north and incorporating all Tuscany in their dominion, the Etruscans embarked upon a series of conquests initially probably not coordinated but undertaken by individual cities. The pressing motive for expansion was that by the middle of this century the Greeks not only had obtained a grip on Corsica and expanded their hold on Sicily and southern Italy but also had settled on the Ligurian coast (northwestern Italy) and in southern France.

Etruscan expansion to the south and east was confined at the line of the Tiber River by the strong Italic Umbrian people settled beyond it on the south and the Picenes on the east. To the northeast no such united power opposed their expansion, since the Apennine mountains in Aemilia (modern Emilia) and Tuscany were held by scattered Italic tribes. Through these the Etruscans were able, in the middle of the 6th century, to push into the Po River valley.

As capital of this northward region they established the old Villanovan centre at Bologna (the Etruscan city of Felsina) and on the banks of the Reno founded Marzabotto. On the Adriatic coast to the east, Ravenna, Rimini (ancient Ariminum), and Spina traded with Istria (ancient Istra) and the Greek Dalmatian colonies. From the Po valley, contacts were made with the central European La Tène cultures. Etruscan conquests in the northeast extended to include what are now the modern cities of Piacenza, Modena, Parma, and Mantua. To the south they were drawn into Latium and Campania from the end of the 7th century, and in the 6th century they had a decisive impact on the history of Rome, where the Etruscan dynasty of the Tarquins is said to have ruled from 616 to 510/509 BC. It is possible that the Roman Tarquins were connected with a family called Tarchu, which is known from inscriptions.

Rome before the Etruscan advent was a small conglomeration of villages. It was under the new masters that, according to tradition, the first public works such as the walls of the Capitoline hill and the Cloaca Maxima (a sewer) were constructed. Considerable evidence of the Etruscan period in Rome's history has come to light in the region of the Capitol. That there were rich tombs in Rome itself cannot be doubted—tombs similar to those in the Latin town of Praeneste (modern Palestrina).

Meanwhile, by the beginning of the 6th century the Etruscans had included Fiesole (ancient Faesulae) and Volterra (ancient Volaterrae) in their northern limits and at the same time began to push southward into Campania. Capua became the chief Etruscan foundation in this region and Nola a second; a necropolis has been found in the Salerno region and Etruscan objects in low levels at Herculaneum and Pompeii. The coastal region was still, however, in Greek hands. When the Etruscans attacked the Greek foundation of Cumae in 524 BC, their advance was finally checked by their defeat at the hands of Aristodemus of that city.

The rivalry between Greek trade in the western Mediterranean and that carried on between the Etruscans and Carthage had already come to a head at the battle of Alalia in 535 BC, a battle which the Greeks claimed to have won but which so upset them that they determined to abandon Corsica to Etruscan and Carthaginian influence.

In the last quarter of the 6th century, when Etruscan power was at its height from the Po to Salerno, small settlements of Etruscans might have been planted beyond these limits. At Spoleto (ancient Spoletium) in the north and Fossombrone in Liguria their power was not, however, to last long; Cumae felt the first of sharp waves of resistance coming from Greeks, Samnites, Romans, and Gauls. In 509 BC the Etruscans were chased from Rome, as reflected in the story of the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, the intervention of Lars Porsena of Clusium, and the Latin victory over Aruns Porsena's son at Aricia. When Latium was lost, relations between Etruria and its Campanian possessions were broken with disastrous effect. A series of piecemeal feuds between Etruscan cities and Rome led to the incorporation of the former into the Roman sphere—first the nearby town of Veii in 396 BC, after which Capena, Sutri, and Nepet (modern Nepi) fell in turn, thus beginning the end of the first of many unsuccessful attempts at unifying Italy.

Nevertheless, the Etruscans had established a thriving commercial and agricultural civilization. Characteristic of their artistic achievements are the wall frescoes and realistic terra-cotta portraits found in their tombs. Their religion employed elaborately organized cults and rituals, including the extensive practice of divination
Геродот между прочим четко называл место откуда вышли Этруски ( правильнее их называть Тиренейцы ) Это Лидия, столица Лидии была город Сард оттуда и идет имя острова Сардиния..

Более того Этруский алфваит не что иное как немножко измененный Лидийский алфавит,

Так почему так трудно определить настоящую родину Этрусков ? Ответ на этот вопрос составит целый трактат так что я не буду
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Old 11.12.2004, 16:56   #22
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Anatolian languages
Encyclopædia Britannica Article

History and development > Languages using a derivative of the Phoenician or Greek alphabet > Lydian

Of the more than 70 Lydian texts (e.g., sepulchral inscriptions, votive texts, many graffiti), more than half have been found by United States excavators at the Lydian capital, Sardis. Two small Greek–Lydian bilingual texts were far less helpful than the famous Aramaic–Lydian text. A few texts (about ten) may go back to the 6th or 5th centuries BC, but many more stem from the 4th century. The Lydian alphabet was derived from an East Greek prototype; the superfluous signs in the Greek alphabet were used for specific Lydian sounds, and additional signs were either borrowed from other “Anatolian alphabets” or freely created.

Important results concerning Lydian were reached using a strictly combinatory method; i.e., passages were compared that expressed similar contents in a slightly different manner in order to obtain a better understanding of the language's structure. This stage of the research culminated in a conclusive article by the Italian Piero Meriggi on the Indo-European character of Lydian (1936). Subsequently, other scholars published evaluations of the Lydian data, a dictionary, and a grammar book. The study of Lydian is hampered by many lexicological uncertainties, but there is at least a growing consensus on matters of grammar leading to the common notion that Lydian belongs to the Anatolian subgroup of Indo-European. The final obstacle to this classification as Anatolian was removed in 1959 by the Italian Onofrio Carruba, who proved that Lydian, like the other members of the Anatolian branch, does not possess a separate feminine gender. Lydian shares common features with Hittite, Palaic, and Luwian and should therefore be acknowledged, it seems, as a fourth independent member of the Anatolian subgroup.
вот про Лидию
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Old 27.12.2004, 08:05   #23
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Originally Posted by Mono
Кстати у меня спецдопуск к Британике так что скажите что вас там интересует и я сля вас достану оттуда
-------------------------
привет Моно! помоги скачать эти если нетрудно ... пока найду крэк на энциклопедию ...

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article...%2Bsumer&ct=eb

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article...%2Bsumer&ct=eb

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article...query=me&ct=eb

спасибо!
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Old 27.12.2004, 16:57   #24
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К сожалению всего несколько дней назад у меня закончилось это право. Скорее всего после нового года она у меня опять будет тогда скачаю.

Про Эриду мне тоже интересно. Первая Шумерская династия была из этого города. В клинописи она писалась HA.A.KI что может иметь несколько значении.
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Old 27.12.2004, 17:02   #25
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Iran's Contribution to the World *
Finance
By: Badi Badiozamani


Material presented in this section has been provided to Iran Online by Iranian Cultural Center of Orange County (ICCOC).

First Banks- During the Achaemenian period private banks were established. The most famous was Bank of Egibi which carried on the business of pawn-brokers floating loans and accepting deposits. Its capital was invested in house property, fields, cattle, and in the boats that carried the merchandise. Current accounts were operated and checks were in use. Bank of Murashshu and Sons was founded later in Nippur. It held leases, dug canals and sold water to the farmers, secured monopolies, such as brewing or fisheries which were farmed out at a profit.

Per Professor Girshman, Greeks followed the example of these banks and similar institutions appeared there, particularly in the temples of Delos, Olympia and Delphia. He adds: "how many financiers and bankers know, for example, that the word 'check' or the word 'avaliser' come from the Pahlavi language and were invented by the Iranian banking institutions of this remote age? The Christian traders of Syria borrowed the bill from Iran, and introduced it into the West."


*Excerpts from "Iran & America: Rekindling a Love Lost" by Badi Badiozamani
Как видите профессор Гершман считает что опыт Банковского дома Эджиби который доминировал во всем Ближнем Востоке на протяжении 300 лет не прошла даром. Впоследствии были продожители в Греции.

Самое интересное что Банковским делом занимались и в знаменитом Дельфи. Знаменитые Дельфийские Оракулы не только пророчеством занимались но и весьма прыбильном делом
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Old 28.12.2004, 13:50   #26
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Originally Posted by Mono
К сожалению всего несколько дней назад у меня закончилось это право. Скорее всего после нового года она у меня опять будет тогда скачаю. Про Эриду мне тоже интересно. Первая Шумерская династия была из этого города. В клинописи она писалась HA.A.KI что может иметь несколько значении.
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ты кстати со своего кармана собираешься платить $ 60 - можно ведь напополам ?
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Old 28.12.2004, 15:48   #27
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Hrach djan

Я же мистер Андерсен И у нас есть ключики Могу достать из матрици что угодно и когда угодно Если уж интервью Аравийского достали то какие проблемы.

Все все закончиваю. Сейчас мистер Смит придет и меня поймает

Vot Eridu
Quote:

ancient Sumerian city south of modern Ur (Tall al-Muqayyar), Iraq. Eridu was revered as the oldest city in Sumer according to the king lists, and its patron god was Enki (Ea), “lord of the sweet waters that flow under the earth.” The site, located at a mound called Abu Shahrayn, was excavated principally between 1946 and 1949 by the Iraq Antiquities Department; it proved to be one of the most important of the prehistoric urban centres in southern Babylonia. Founded on sand dunes probably in the 5th millennium BC, it fully illustrated the sequence of the preliterate Ubaid civilization, with its long succession of superimposed temples portraying the growth and development of an elaborate mud-brick architecture.

The city continued to be occupied to about 600 BC but was less important in historic periods.
Esarhaddon

Quote:
Mesopotamia to the end of the Achaemenian period > The Neo-Assyrian Empire (746–609) > Esarhaddon
Ignoring the claims of his older brothers, an imperial council appointed Esarhaddon (Ashur-aha-iddina; 680–669) as Sennacherib's successor. The choice is all the more difficult to explain in that Esarhaddon, unlike his father, was friendly toward the Babylonians. It can be assumed that his energetic and designing mother, Zakutu (Naqia), who came from Syria or Judah, used all her influence on his behalf to override the national party of Assyria. The theory that he was a partner in plotting the murder of his father is rather improbable; at any rate, he was able to procure the loyalty of his father's army. His brothers had to flee to Urartu. In his inscriptions, Esarhaddon always mentions both his father and grandfather.

Defining the destruction of Babylon explicitly as punishment by the god Marduk, the new king soon ordered the reconstruction of the city. He referred to himself only as governor of Babylonia and through his policies obtained the support of the cities of Babylonia. At the beginning of his reign the Aramaean tribes were still allied with Elam against him, but Urtaku of Elam (675–664) signed a peace treaty and freed him for campaigning elsewhere. In 679 he stationed a garrison at the Egyptian border, because Egypt, under the Ethiopian king Taharqa, was planning to intervene in Syria. He put down with great severity a rebellion of the combined forces of Sidon, Tyre, and other Syrian cities. The time was ripe to attack Egypt, which was suffering under the rule of the Ethiopians and was by no means a united country. Esarhaddon's first attempt in 674–673 miscarried. In 671 BC, however, his forces took Memphis, the Egyptian capital. Assyrian consultants were assigned to assist the princes of the 22 provinces, their main duty being the collection of tribute.

Occasional threats came from the mountainous border regions of eastern Anatolia and Iran. Pushed forward by the Scythians, the Cimmerians in northern Iran and Transcaucasia tried to gain a foothold in Syria and western Iran. Esarhaddon allied himself with the Scythian king Partatua by giving him one of his daughters in marriage. In so doing he checked the movement of the Cimmerians. Nevertheless, the apprehensions of Esarhaddon can be seen in his many offerings, supplications, and requests to the sun god. These were concerned less with his own enterprises than with the plans of enemies and vassals and the reliability of civil servants. The priestesses of Ishtar had to reassure Esarhaddon constantly by calling out to him, “Do not be afraid.” Previous kings, as far as is known, had never needed this kind of encouragement.

At home Esarhaddon was faced with serious difficulties from factions in the court. His oldest son had died early. The national party suspected his second son, Shamash-shum-ukin, of being too friendly with the Babylonians; he may also have been considered unequal to the task of kingship. His third son, Ashurbanipal, was given the succession in 672, Shamash-shum-ukin remaining crown prince of Babylonia. This arrangement caused much dissension, and some farsighted civil servants warned of disastrous effects. Nevertheless, the Assyrian nobles, priests, and city leaders were sworn to just such an adjustment of the royal line; even the vassal princes had to take very detailed oaths of allegiance to Ashurbanipal, with many curses against perjurers.

Another matter of deep concern for Esarhaddon was his failing health. He regarded eclipses of the moon as particularly alarming omens, and, in order to prevent a fatal illness from striking him at these times, he had substitute kings chosen who ruled during the three eclipses that occurred during his 12-year reign. The replacement kings died or were put to death after their brief term of office. During his off-terms Esarhaddon called himself “Mister Peasant.” This practice implied that the gods could not distinguish between the real king and a false one—quite contrary to the usual assumptions of the religion.

Esarhaddon enlarged and improved the temples in both Assyria and Babylonia. He also constructed a palace in Kalakh, using many of the picture slabs of Tiglath-pileser III. The works that remain are not on the level of those of either his predecessors or of Ashurbanipal. He died while on an expedition to put down a revolt in Egypt.

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Old 06.03.2005, 12:56   #28
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The Rock Arts of the Armenian Elevation are the Primary Source of
the Armenian, Egyptian, Indian and Hettitian Ideograms (Hieroglyphs)

http://www.iatp.am/ara/sites/article...oglyhsengl.htm

An excerpt from "Armenia,Summer and Subartu" by Prof.,Dr.Martiros Kavukjian
http://www.angelfire.com/hi/Azgaser/AR.html
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Old 28.06.2005, 21:05   #29
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Quote:
Реформаторская и законодательная деятельность Хаммурапи, грандиозная по своим масштабам и целенаправленности, произвела большое впечатление на современников и надолго осталась в памяти потомков. Однако эти меры, часто новаторские по форме и способу проведения, по сути своей были направлены не на обновление общества, а на поддержание традиционных общественных институтов, таких, как натуральное хозяйство, общинная собственность на землю и т.п., и не затрагивали экономической основы общества: характер производства и уровень развития производительных сил в старовавилонской Месопотамии оставались в принципе теми же, что и в Шумере.
Quote:
Хаммурапи был, несомненно, одним из самых выдающихся деятелей в истории древней Месопотамии. Его личные качества сыграли немалую роль в возвышении Вавилона и сохранении им долгое время своей власти над значительной частью Двуречья. Однако те же силы, которые подточили государство III династии Ура и привели его к упадку, продолжали действовать в Месопотамии и после образования Вавилонского государства. Экономические интересы разных частей Вавилонии были различны, и только ценой больших усилий Хаммурапи и его преемникам удавалось некоторое время удерживать всю завоеванную территорию в своих руках. Выше уже говорилось о деятельности Хаммурапи по созданию единой экономической системы, эффективного административного аппарата. Все эти меры, однако, не имели долговременного успеха. В историческом плане главным итогом правления Хаммурапи было то, что основная сцена действия месопотамской истории, располагавшаяся с начала III тысячелетия до х.э. на юге, была перенесена на север, где она и оставалась затем более 1000 лет.
После смерти Хаммурапи основанное им государство продолжало существовать при его потомках еще более 150 лет, постепенно ослабевая под ударами внутренних и внешних врагов. Место амореев заняли пастушеские племена касситов, которые уже с XVII в. постоянно вторгались в Месопотамию с востока - с центральной части горных хребтов Загроса. Удары касситов, трудности охраны протяженных границ, экономические затруднения, вызванные неспособностью государства преградить путь ростовщичеству и остановить обезземеливание общинников, - все это ослабляло Вавилон и усиливало сепаратистские стремления подчиненных ему областей.
Первым от Вавилона отпал город Терка в долине р. Хабур, где кочевали племена ханеев; здесь же осела и большая группа касситов. Затем восстали города на юге страны, поддержанные племенами Идамарац и Ямутбала. Восстание было подавлено (1739 г. до х.э.), многие города юга страны - Ларса и древнейшие центры шумерской цивилизации, хранители тысячелетних традиций клинописной культуры Урук и Ур - были полностью разрушены и надолго опустели. Однако Вавилону не удалось окончательно вернуть себе юг. Образовавшееся у берегов Персидского залива государство Приморской династии просуществовало почти 300 лет.
К середине XVII в. у Вавилонского государства, которое оставалось крупнейшим на территории Месопотамии, появились еще более сильные соперники и размеры его значительно уменьшились. На юге Лагаш и Ур с примыкающими к ним территориями прочно вошли в состав Приморского царства. На севере границы Вавилона пролегли южнее Мари и Ашшура. Из областей за Тигром за ним сохранялись территории, занятые племенами Идамарац и Ямутбала. В Верхней Месопотамии прочно держалось ханойское царство с центром в Терке, где аккадско-аморейскую династию сменила касситская. К власти здесь пришел царь с касситским именем Каштилиаш. Отсюда касситы небольшими группами постепенно проникали во все области Месопотамии. Многие из них нанимались на сезонные работы, поступали на службу в войско. В 1595 г. до х.э., после того как хетты во главе с Мурсили I вторглись в Месопотамию и низложили последнего царя Вавилонской династии - Самсудитану, касситы захватили царскую власть в Вавилонии. Их правление продолжалось более 400 лет.
http://www.world-history.ru/countries_about/2021.html

Я писал по памяти поэтому написал 100 лет. Аморейская династия после Хамураппи продержался 150 лет. Хотя последные 50 лет можно считать что было скорее формальное существование. Касситы вовсю свирепствовали по всей стране.

Кстати про Касситов. В истории у них имидж варваров и горских дикарей. Но это не так. Если реально посмотреть то они сделали не меньше для Вавилона нежели Аморейская династия. Хотя этот период четко не различается в школьных учебниках.

Хетты после разгрома Вавилона увели оттуда статую Мардука а также сломали Храм Мардука. Касситы востановили храм и ктому же вернули статую Мардука.

Вот такие вот горцы варвары

http://www.world-history.ru/countries_about/2021.html
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Old 05.07.2005, 21:37   #30
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Честно говоря я увожаю всех царей Урарту
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