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Old 11.02.2007, 18:09   #1
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Default Международная Финансовая Система

В этой теме я затронул тему концетрации финансовой власти в Армении. Но поскольку эта тема имеет более глобальную подоплеку то я решил открыть новую тему где поставлю интересные ( думаю для многих это будет новостью ) материалы где вы сами поймете, что "проблемы" нашего драма это просто дальные отголоски глобальных процессов о которых не часто можно услышать по СМИ.

Просьба не отвечать здесь пока я не соберу все материалы !

Last edited by Mono; 11.02.2007 at 19:23.
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Old 11.02.2007, 19:39   #2
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Основу нынешной МФС было заложено в 1944-ом по Бретон Вудскому соглашению


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The Bretton Woods system of international monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the world's major industrial states. The Bretton Woods system was the first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent nation-states.

Preparing to rebuild the international economic system as World War II was still raging, 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The delegates deliberated upon and signed the Bretton Woods Agreements during the first three weeks of July 1944.

Setting up a system of rules, institutions, and procedures to regulate the international monetary system, the planners at Bretton Woods established the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) (now one of five institutions in the World Bank Group) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). These organizations became operational in 1946 after a sufficient number of countries had ratified the agreement.

The chief features of the Bretton Woods system were an obligation for each country to adopt a monetary policy that maintained the exchange rate of its currency within a fixed value—plus or minus one percent—in terms of gold; and the ability of the IMF to bridge temporary imbalances of payments. In the face of increasing strain, the system collapsed in 1971, following the United States' suspension of convertibility from dollars to gold.

Until the early 1970s, the Bretton Woods system was effective in controlling conflict and in achieving the common goals of the leading states that had created it, especially the United States.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bretton_Woods_system

1944-ый год был выбран не случайно, в этом году стало очевидно что Германия и Япония потерпят поражение.
Смысл этого соглашения был очень прост. Только американский доллар был привязан к золоте, а все остальные европейские и азиатские деньги которые не попали под влияние коммунистов, привязывали свои деньги к доллару.

Болвв того был создан МВФ который имел право следить за политикой центробанков других стран.
Хотя и центробанки и номинально продолжали существовать но в реальности они превратились в филиалы Федеральной Резервной Системы.
Об этом есть интересный анализ вот здесь
http://malchish.org/index.php?p=195
Это о ЦБ России, но аналогичная ситуация повсеместно.

Считается что система Бретон Вудса исчезла в 1970-ых, поскольку США отказались платить золотом на требование Франции взять обратно свои долларовые излишки.

В реальности ничего по существу не изменилось. Просто золото вообще потеряло смысл. И вся мировая капиталистическая система была привязана к доллару. С падением СССР, осколки пост-коммунистических держав были быстренько интегрированы в эту систему.
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Old 11.02.2007, 19:47   #3
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И так все сводится к ФРС.
Как неоднократно написано в этом форуме ФРС является акционерным обществом, акции которого принадлежат крупным "американским" банкам. Она была создана в 1913-ом.
Но в истории финансов это не было первым инцидентом. Скорее это было последным таким случаем, ибо уже после 1944-ого года когда все банки мира были привязаны к ФРС, то отпала нужда создавать частные центробанки по всему миру.
А вот до 1913-ого года частные центробанки были повсеместным явлением в Европейских и не только в Европейских странах.
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Old 11.02.2007, 19:51   #4
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Для того чтобы убедится в этом не нужно рытся во всяком конспирилогоческом хламе. Нужно всего лишь пройтись по официальным сайтам центробанков список которых можно увидеть вот на сайте этого швецарского банка
http://www.bis.org/cbanks.htm
Этот швецарский банк, между прочим играет ключевую роль в МФС. Она является посредников во взаиморасчетах между центробанками. Иногда его даже называют даже Центробанком центробанков.
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Old 11.02.2007, 19:57   #5
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Итак начнем с Британии, откуда началась выстроивание нынешной глобальной МФС.

Банк оф Ингланд 1694-ый год
Quote:
William Paterson
William Paterson proposed a loan of £1,200,000 to the Government. In return the subscribers would be incorporated as the Governor and Company of the Bank of England.

The Royal Charter
The money was raised in a few weeks and the Royal Charter was sealed on 27th July 1694. The Bank started life as the Government's banker and debt-manager, with 17 clerks and 2 gatekeepers. In 1734 the Bank moved to Thread-needle Street, gradually acquiring land and premises to create the site seen today.
http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/about/history/index2.htm

Как видим черно по белому написано, что это было частной инициативой. Банк был национализирован в 1946-ом, но это уже пост-бретон-вудский период и это уже не так важно.
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Old 11.02.2007, 20:04   #6
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Банк де Франс: год 1800

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La Banque de France a été créée le 18 janvier 1800 par le Premier Consul Napoléon Bonaparte, dans le but de favoriser la reprise de l'activité économique après la forte récession de la période révolutionnaire. Le nouvel établissement était chargé d'émettre des billets payables à vue et au porteur, en contrepartie de l'escompte d'effets de commerce.
À cette époque, la Suède et l'Angleterre disposaient déjà d'un institut d'émission. Celui qui allait être créé en France s'avérait toutefois plus modeste puisque les statuts primitifs de la Banque du 13 février 1800 limitaient son champ d'action à la ville de Paris et laissaient subsister la concurrence d'établissements existants.
Instruits par les expériences malheureuses de la banque de Law et de la création des assignats, les rédacteurs des statuts, pour vaincre la méfiance du public vis-à-vis du papier-monnaie, ont préféré confier la mise en circulation de celui-ci à une autorité indépendante des pouvoirs publics. La Banque de France était donc organisée sous la forme d'une société par actions, au capital de 30 millions de francs, dont une partie a été souscrite par le Premier Consul et plusieurs membres de son entourage. Les 200 actionnaires les plus importants constituaient l'Assemblée générale. Elle désignait les quinze régents composant le Conseil général chargé d'administrer la Banque, et les trois censeurs ayant mission d'en surveiller la gestion. Le Conseil général élisait à son tour un Comité central
http://www.banque-france.fr/fr/instit/histoire/1.htm

Тут говорится о том что Банк де Франс был основан в 1800-ом по указу Наполеона, был акционерным обществом, и сам Наполеон и его ближные имели акции в этом банке. Также указано что тогда у Британии и Шведии была точно такая же система.
История Банк де Франса очень интересная, она все время злоупотребляла своими правами и создавала инфляцию. Но это уже другая история, в 1930-ых были попытки национализации и тому подобнее
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Old 11.02.2007, 20:10   #7
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На самом деле первые эксперименты ставились в Шведии

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1661 Johan Palmstruch, the founder of Sweden’s first bank, Stockholms banco, implements his idea of facilitating the management of money by beginning to issue the first real banknotes, “credit notes”. These notes were interest-free IOUs in specific amounts that were meant to correspond to money deposited in the bank and strict regulations were introduced for their usage. The banknotes were a great success, but it all ended in a bank failure as Palmstruch issued too many notes in the form of unsecured loans. Palmstruch was removed from office and condemned to death, although he was reprieved.
http://www.riksbank.com/templates/Page.aspx?id=9170
http://www.riksbank.com/templates/Page.aspx?id=9171
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Old 11.02.2007, 20:16   #8
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Испания : начиная с 1782-ого года

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The history of the Banco de España goes back more than two centuries. The Banco Nacional de San Carlos, the first modern Spanish bank and direct forerunner of the current Banco de España, was founded on June 2nd 1782, by a Royal Warrant of King Carlos III. Its capital was private, but it was established under Royal patronage, which accounts for its name.

Its foundation was closely linked to growth in the public debt, a link which survived throughout its long life and through successive changes. The first director and inspiring force was Francisco Cabarrús, a French banker established in Madrid. Two years earlier, in 1780, Cabarrús had negotiated with the Treasury the issuance and placement of a new form of special government debt, called vales reales. These vales reales yielded interest of 4 per cent and had the properties of paper money in wholesale transactions and in the payment of taxes. One of the main objectives assigned to the new bank was to counter the depreciation of the vales reales, and it was thus authorised to purchase them for cash when they were presented for payment. Although the Banco de San Carlos was authorised to issue bearer banknotes, it did not use this power except during short periods. At first the Bank's operations fared well, but later the involvement of the Spanish crown in a continuous series of wars between 1793 and 1814 led the Bank into serious difficulties.

By 1814, the State owed the Bank more than 300 million reales (equivalent to 75 million pesetas). However, the Bank continued to operate, with its business reduced to the new activity of discounting in Madrid and the negotiation of bills in other centres. The shareholders of the Banco Nacional de San Carlos expected the Treasury to repay at least part of its debt to the Bank, and so it did, in 1829. The then Treasury minister, Luis López Ballesteros, had in practice definitively instituted the system of annual budgets for public expenditure and revenue. Accordingly, it was necessary for a financial institution to advance short-term funds to the Government, to bridge gaps in the Treasury's cash flow. For this purpose, he conceived the idea of giving the Banco de San Carlos a fund of 40 million reales, whereupon its shareholders founded a new bank of issue named the Banco Español de San Fernando. This Bank did use, albeit with extreme prudence, the power to issue notes. Until 1844 it was the only bank of issue in Spain. That year another two banks were created with the power to print and issue paper money. These were the Banco de Isabel II (based, like the Banco de San Fernando, in Madrid) and the Banco de Barcelona. In 1846 the Banco de Cádiz was created to distribute the banknotes of the Banco de Isabel II in that city.
http://www.bde.es/infoinst/historia/historiae.htm

история банков в Испании вообще это отдельная тема, продолжение можете читать на сайте
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Old 11.02.2007, 20:22   #9
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Австрия

Quote:
The foundation of the central bank of Austria dates back to the early 19th century. However, the Habsburgs, the ruling dynasty in the old Austro-Hungarian Empire, had started experimenting with the issuance of paper money already 50 years before: a separate institution chartered in the early 18th century had been entrusted with the issuance and distribution of banknotes. Since it was independent from government, it enjoyed the confidence of the business community. Notwithstanding the fact that the Municipal Bank of Vienna (Wiener Stadtbank) had existed since 1705, it was only in 1762 that it started to issue bank notes known as "Bancozettel."


At the end of the 18th century, during the Napoleonic wars, government stepped in by taking direct control of the banknote issuance process. As a result, the supply of money in circulation increased in fits and starts. To state an example, the total money in circulation amounted to fl (florin, "Gulden") 44 million in banknotes in 1796 and had grown to as much as fl 942 million by 1810. Banknotes increasingly replaced silver and copper coins in business transactions, which illustrated the substitution of good money by bad postulated by Gresham’s Law.



In 1799 the government decreed that paper money was to be the only legal tender in private commercial transactions, and the market responded by trading banknotes at a discount to their face value. As an example, "Bankozettel" at a face value of fl 100 were redeemed for only fl 92 in silver coins in 1799 and due to inflation, their value had dropped to a mere 15% of the face value by December 1810. Soldiers on the battlefield even rebelled against the attempts to be paid with "Bancozettel."

The business community declared that the devaluation of the banknotes at a 5:1 ratio, as decreed by the Habsburgs, was tantamount to national bankruptcy. Despite the assurances of the government to refrain from excessive issuance of banknotes from now on, the currency again depreciated rapidly, compelling the public to label the banknotes "Viennese currency."
далее Австро-Венгрия

Quote:
When the political balance in Europe was restored at the end of Napoleonic wars, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was faced with enormous challenges. The Habsburg territory spanning many divergent ethnic areas could no longer rely only on the Church, nobility, army, and civil service, the traditional pre-war pillars of support; the Empire also needed a sound economic base in order to function properly. Government therefore had to restore confidence of its business community. The basic economic law of supply and demand could not be tampered with, and even the Emperor had to comply. Well aware of these facts, on June 1, 1816, his Majesty Francis I issued two imperial decrees, the "Highest Finance Patent" and the "Bank Patent"; the very same day, the central bank of Austria ("privilegirte österreichische National-Bank") was established. The preparatory work was done by Count Johann Philipp Graf von Stadion, the Austrian Minister of Finance at the time.



Only when the central bank, which had the exclusive right to issue banknotes, was founded was the Austrian monetary system finally stabilized and the confidence of the public restored. By taking these circumspect actions, the bank had at least temporarily achieved its objective of maintaining and making the value of paper money rise. This institution had to remain totally independent from the governmental fiscal objectives. Therefore, the central bank was capitalized by the issuance of shares sold to investors.

The activities of central bank, which had a provisional management at first, were initially limited to the redemption of paper money and the issuance of shares. They were to be extended upon the sale of its 1,000th share when the bank was to become fully operative under a new management appointed by the shareholders.
http://www.oenb.at/en/ueber_die_oenb...p#tcm:16-11125

хотя четко не говорится о частном характере этого банка, но из общего изложения легко понять что речь не идет о банке который принадлежит конкретно Габсбургам
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Old 11.02.2007, 20:25   #10
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Турция, начиная с 1847-ого года

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THE OTTOMAN PERIOD



In the Ottoman Empire, the Treasury operations, money and credit transactions and the trade in gold and foreign currencies were executed in varying degrees by the Treasury, the Mint, jewelers, money lenders, foundations and guilds.



In 1847 the Ottoman Government allowed Galata Bankers to set up the "Bank of Dersaadet" as a bank which assumed the external payments of the Ottoman Empire for the first time.



In 1856 the "Ottoman Bank" was established jointly with French and English capital and in 1863 partly assumed the functions of contemporary central banking after becoming a state bank under the name of "Imperial Ottoman Bank".



The Imperial Ottoman Bank enjoyed the right and monopoly of issuing banknotes. The Government relinquished the right to issue banknote within the period of privilege and to grant permission to other institutions in this regard as well. Equipped with this power, the Bank would act as the Treasurer of the State, collect the State revenues, perform the payments of the Treasury and discount Treasury bills as well. The interest and principal payments regarding domestic and foreign debts would be made by the Ottoman Bank only. The capital of the Bank consisted of 135.000 shares. The 80.000 of which were bought by English Group, and 50.000 of which by French Group, whereas 5.000 shares were allocated to Ottomans.
http://www.tcmb.gov.tr/yeni/banka/history.html

Турция для нас армян это отдельная тема, поэтому я поговорю о ней более детально завтра.

хорошая статья на эту тему
Quote:
FOUNDED UNDER THE ORDER OF QUEEN VICTORIA AND FUNDED BY FOREIGN CAPITAL, THE BANK-I OSMANİ (THE OTTOMAN BANK), UP UNTIL THE FOUNDATION OF THE CENTRAL BANK IN 1931, WAS AT FIRST THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE’S AND LATER THE TURKISH REPUBLIC’S NATIONAL BANK. THE CENTURY OLD PLANE TREE OF THE OTTOMAN BANK MELTED WITHIN THE CLOVER OF GARANTİ BANK IN 2001, BUT IT’S ARCHIVES, WHICH TELL THE STORY OF MORE THAN JUST THE HISTORY OF A BANK, HAS BEEN OPENED TO THE PUBLIC AS A MUSEUM.
Though at one time their advertising slogan may have been, "there’s no difference between us, but we are The Ottoman Bank", this shouldn’t be taken lightly, as the Ottoman Bank had a résumé far different from that of the banks it was in competition with. It was formed as the Bank-ı Osmani (Ottoman Bank) by Peter Pasquali and Stephen Sleigh, two English entrepreneurs, under the order of Queen Victoria on 24 May, 1856.
...
Quote:
1914 saw the birth of the First World War, a war, which would place the whole world into a plant like state for four years. The Ottoman Bank was caught in between in a position where there was the State on one side, and on the other side, the English and the French, those considered enemies of the State, but also shareholders in the bank. When the war finally came to an end, even though "the sick man" wasn’t about to die, it was obvious he was bedridden. The winds had changed and the history books were rewriting their pages:
http://www.turkishtime.org/13/91_2_eng.htm
автор замечает абсурдность ситуации. когда с одной стороны Турция воевала с Францией и Британией, а с другой стороны именно холдингы из этих стран контролировали главный банк Османской империи.
парадоксально, но факт

Last edited by Mono; 12.02.2007 at 07:13.
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Old 12.02.2007, 05:20   #11
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У меня тихие подозрения, что Mono учится на экономиста...
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Old 13.02.2007, 10:17   #12
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Идем дальше

Португалия 1846-1971

Quote:
The Banco de Portugal was established by a royal charter of November 19th, 1846, to act as a commercial bank and issuing bank. It came about as the result of a merger of the Banco de Lisboa and the Companhia de Confianзa Nacional, an investment company specialised in the financing of the public debt.

By 1887, the Banco de Portugal shared the right to issue banknotes with other institutions. With the publication of the Decree-Law of July 9th, 1891, the Banco de Portugal became the sole issuer of bank notes for the mainland, the Azores and Madeira.

From the beginning, it was a public limited company, and until its nationalisation, in 1974, was for the most part privately owned.
http://www.bportugal.pt/bank/history/history_e.htm
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Old 13.02.2007, 10:24   #13
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Польша 1924

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On January 11, 1924 the Sejm passed the Act on State Treasury Repair and Currency Reform.

On January 20 the statute of the Bank of Poland was passed and the bank was granted the sole right to issue notes. The activities of the Bank were organised by a five-person committee chaired by the future President Stanisław Karpiński. According to contemporary models, the central bank was established as a private joint stock company, which was supposed to ensure its independence. The shares of the Bank were held by 176,000 shareholders. The State Treasury held only 1% of stock. The Bank started its operation on April 28, 1924. It exchanged the Polish mark at an exchange rate of 1,800,000 marks to the zloty. The zloty was on par with the gold franc (i.e. Swiss franc). The initially sound condition of the budget and the balance of payments as well as the accumulated foreign currency and gold reserves provided stabilisation and ensured the success of the reform.

The success proved short-lived, however. The very poor harvest and a deep industrial crisis in 1924, and later the disastrous balance of payments in 1925 weakened the zloty dramatically. Foreign exchange interventions of the Bank of Poland proved ineffective. Fearing a decrease in modest gold and foreign exchange reserves, the Bank decided not to defend the zloty exchange rate any more. Prime Minister Grabski resigned in November 1925. The economic situation led to a renewed budget deficit. The government funded its expenditure by issuing notes and coin. Inflation (dubbed 'coin inflation') returned. Prices were rising by more than 15% per year. It was only an upswing in business climate that improved the budget and the balance of payments as well as helped stabilise the exchange rate.
http://www.nbp.pl/Homen.aspx?f=en/on...ankowosci.html
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Old 20.02.2007, 09:09   #14
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Как относиться к тому, что валютные резервы Китая превысили триллион долларов США?

Опубликованные Народным банком Китая 15 января с.г. данные показывают, что к концу декабря 2006 г. валютные запасы Китая составили 1,0663 трлн долларов США, т.е. на 30,22 проц. больше по сравнению с предыдущим годом.
интересная новость
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Old 20.02.2007, 21:33   #15
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С Китаем шутки плохи...
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